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Targeting the relaxin hormonal pathway in prostate cancer. Neschadim A, Summerlee AJS, Silvertown JD (2014). International Journal of Cancer. E-publication ahead of print.

Relaxin receptor antagonist AT-001 synergizes with docetaxel in androgen-independent prostate xenografts. Neschadim A, Pritzker LB, Pritzker KP, Branch DR, Summerlee AJ, Trachtenberg J, Silvertown JD (2014). Endocrine-Related Cancer. 21(3):459-71.

Relaxin-3 and receptors in the human and rhesus brain and reproductive tissues. Silvertown JD, Neschadim A, Liu HN, Shannon P, Walia JS, Kao JCH, Robertson J, Summerlee AJS, Medin JA. (2010). Reg Pep. 159(1-3):44.

Analog of H2 relaxin exhibits antagonistic potential and suppresses prostate tumor growth. Silvertown JD, Symes J, Neschadim A, Nonaka T, Kao JC, Summerlee AJ, Medin JA. (2007). FASEB J, 21(3): 754-765.

Relaxin enhances the oncogenic potential of human thyroid carcinoma cells. Hombach-Klonisch S, Bialek J, Riedel M, Fieberg B, Weber E, Holzhausen H, Silvertown JD, Summerlee AJ, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C, Klonisch T. (2006). American Journal of Pathology, 169(2):617-32.

H2-relaxin overexpression promotes prostate tumor growth and angiogenesis. Silvertown JD, Ng J, Summerlee AJ, Medin JA. (2006). Int J Cancer, 118(1):62-73.

Adenoviral mediated prorelaxin facilitates the invasive potential of a canine mammary cancer cell line. Silvertown JD, Geddes BJ, AJS Summerlee (2003). Endocrinology, 144(8): 3683-3691.

Relaxin-like peptides in cancer. Silvertown JD, Summerlee AJS, Klonisch T (2003). Intl J Can, 107(4): 513-19.

Intellectual Property

Armour has patents protecting the substance and use of its peptide-based relaxin antagonists for the application of tumor suppression for an array of relevant cancers in all mammals including humans, which is the most direct, safe and effective approach to antagonizing the relaxin pathway. Protection also covers a breadth of delivery and treatment methods, formulations, compositions, and combination treatments. Additional patents are currently under filing and prosecution.

Other Selected Publications on Relaxin in Cancer

Relaxins enhance growth of spontaneous murine breast cancers as well as metastatic colonization of the brain. Binder C et al. (2014). Clin Exp Metastasis. 31(1):57-65.

Role of relaxin-2 in human primary osteosarcoma. Ma J et al. (2013). Cancer Cell Int. 13(1):59.

Relaxin promotes in vitro tumour growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells by AKT/VEGF pathway. Ma JF et al. (2013). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 17(10):1345-50.

RNAi-mediated knockdown of relaxin decreases in vitro proliferation and invasiveness of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by inhibition of MMP-9. Ma JF et al. (2013). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 17(8):1102-9.

Significance of relaxin-2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: relation with clinicopathological parameters. Pan HZ et al. (2013). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 17(8):1095-101.

Elevated serum levels of human relaxin-2 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ren P et al. (2013). World J Gastroenterol. 19(15):2412-8.

Relaxin enhances in-vitro invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines by upregulation of S100A4/MMPs signaling. Cao WH et al. (2013). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 17(5):609-17.

Human relaxin-2: historical perspectives and role in cancer biology. Nair VB et al. (2012). Amino Acids. 43(3):1131-40.

Dual blockade of PKA and NF-κB inhibits H2 relaxin-mediated castrate-resistant growth of prostate cancer sublines and induces apoptosis. Vinall RL et al. (2011). Horm Cancer. 2(4):224-38.

Relaxin drives Wnt signaling through upregulation of PCDHY in prostate cancer. Thompson VC et al. (2010). Prostate. 70(10):1134-45.

The chemically synthesized human relaxin-2 analog, B-R13/17K H2, is an RXFP1 antagonist. Hossain MA et al (2010). Amino Acids; 39(2):409-16.

Suppression of relaxin receptor RXFP1 decreases prostate cancer growth and metastasis. Feng S et al. (2010). Endocr Relat Cancer.;17(4):1021-33.

Relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in prostate cancer progression. Feng S et al. (2009). Ann N Y Acad Sci; 1160:379-80.

Inappropriate activation of androgen receptor by relaxin via beta-catenin pathway. Liu S et al. (2008). Oncogene. 27(4):499-505.

Relaxin promotes prostate cancer progression. Feng S, et al. (2007). Clin Cancer Res. 13(6):1695-702.

Relaxin enhances the oncogenic potential of human thyroid carcinoma cells. Hombach-Klonisch et al (2006). Am J Pathol; 169:617-632

The role of relaxin in endometrial cancer. Kamat AA et al. (2006). Cancer Biol Ther; 5:71-77.

Relaxin becomes upregulated during prostate cancer progression to androgen independence and is negatively regulated by androgens. Thompson et al. (2006). Prostate. 66:1698-709.

The R273H p53 mutation can facilitate the androgen-independent growth of LNCaP by a mechanism that involves H2 relaxin and its cognate receptor LGR7. Vinall et al. (2006). Oncogene. 25:2082-93

Human relaxins in normal, benign and neoplastic breast tissue. Tashima et al. (1994). J Mol Endocrinol 12, 351-364.


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